ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)

 

ACT考試中,Literary Narrative(以前稱為Prose Fiction)是閱讀測試中的第一篇文章。因此這篇文章的做題質量,不僅直接影響著閱讀部分最終得分,還會影響后面三篇文章閱讀水平的發揮。對缺少文學作品閱讀經驗的考生,很多培訓老師建議直接跳過小說閱讀。
但事實上,只要是把握住考試設計原理,掌握一些技巧,ACT文學作品部分(小說,有時候甚至包括第三篇humanity)很容易拿高分。

在這一講里面,Peter老師專門就文學作品的要素(literary elements)和如何訓練可視化閱讀習慣(reading figuratively )。

Literary Elements:
Literary elements是文學作品構成的要件。因此,在考試中,閱讀文學作品首先得弄明白以下幾點:

a. 視角(perspective)
文學作品的視角從理論上講很復雜,但是在ACT考試中,弄清楚兩種視角和一些常見的表述詞匯就可以了。

第一人稱,也叫主觀視角,即作品以第一人稱(1st person narrative),陳述者(narrator)是作品中的角色(character)之一。因此,作品的視角帶有情感傾向。關鍵詞:subjective,biased等。

第三人稱,也叫客觀視角,上帝視角,即作品以第三人稱敘述(3rd person narrative),陳述者知道每個角色的思想。因此,作品的視角是客觀公正的。關鍵詞:objective, impartial, unbiased, omniscient等。

b. 角色的內在(disposition of characters)
內在(disposition)是相對于外表(appearance)來說的,是指角色的性格、氣質、喜怒哀樂等品質。ACT重點考察角色的“態度”(attitude)。

       c. 事件(events)
      ACT考試在選材的時候,比較注重故事背后的人文精神(reflection),而不像SAT那樣注重故事情節和對人物的刻畫。因此,小說往往先用小事件(minor events)來交代故事的背景(background information)和人物的內在(disposition),再用大事件(major event)來把讀者帶入,形成共鳴。

綜上所述,ACT考試中,考生在文學體裁做快速閱讀的時候,一定要首先搞清楚上述元素。然后重點關注下列形象化語言和態度描述。

2. 可視化閱讀訓練
可視化閱讀(Visualizing)是小說閱讀的基本功。ACT的細節題主要考察學生對形象化語言(figurative language的敏感能力。在快速閱讀小說的時候,一定要關注下面兩種形象化語言表達。

a. 類比結構(analogy)
類比結構包括明喻(simile)和暗喻(metaphor)

在讀到"like something,as something,as if..."等這些比喻結構的時候,要在腦海中呈現畫面,例如:
ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)

這一段中,作者描述夜幕降臨的時候蝙蝠開始熱鬧起來,用”like an orchestra tuning its instruments before a concert"和"as if the ceiling came alive"兩個結構描述蝙蝠在夜幕降臨時分分外活躍的畫面。

b.對比結構(contrast)

ACT閱讀中對對比結構對考察往往比對類比結構的考察要深入一些。例如:
ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)

在這一段描寫出現小蝙蝠掉落事件(event)的時候,有兩種結果:一是老蝙蝠來救它們,二是我們不得不把它們送回去或暫時養起來。作者用"but on occasions"形成前后對比。

對前一種結果,作者用"enjoy a safe return"來表現出一個"肯定(positive)"的態度,而對于后一種結果,作者用“we had to..." "fortunately, this only happened once in a while"來表示一種相對"否定(negative)"的態度。

本段后面有一題:
ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)
如果能形象化地讀懂作者的態度,這種題目不但得分高,而且還可以節約寶貴的時間。

練習:
下面這篇小說采用大量的形象化語言表達兩種對立的立場,請重點關注類比結構和對比結構考點的命題形式。

This passage is adapted from the short story "A Prisoner in His Castle" by Curtis Longweather (© 2008 by Curtis Longweather).
ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)
ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)
ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)

1.As it relates to his friend's fear as described in the second paragraph, thenarrator's description of a volcano (lines 13-19) most serves to:
A.elaborate the friend's inner torment.
B. speculate that his friend's thoughts will be unleashed.
C. explain why the friend is unable to speak.
D. imply the friend needs to be more patient.

2.Which of the following best describes the structure of the passage?
F. Adetailed character study of two close friends by means of describing oneextended argument between them.
G. A debate about a topic during which the two main characters take equal turnsdiscussing their positions and reasons.
H. An exploration of the author's experience of his friend's speech impairmentusing their verbal and written exchanges as a primary source.
J. The depiction of a unique friendship that allows the narrator to explain hissuccesses and struggles as a lawyer.

3.The erupting volcano simile refers to a dust cloud and a lava flow to portray:
A.intuition and logic.
B. simplicity and complexity.
C. instinct and deliberation.
D. vocal and non-vocal expression.

4.Based on the passage, which of the following statements most clearly portraysthe respective attitudes of the narrator and his friend?
F.The friend is argumentative and cynical; the narrator is jaded and indifferent.
G. The friend is scornful and depressed; the narrator is apologetic andidealistic.
H. The friend is anxious and despondent; the narrator is sympathetic andencouraging.
J. The friend is shy and reclusive; the narrator is outgoing and nonchalant.

5.In the passage, the narrator most nearly describes Cyrano de Bergerac as:
A.someone who was afraid of losing the love of his life.
B. unable to produce any sound of his own due to a physical condition.
C. someone who had reason to communicate indirectly with a woman.
D. too caught up in the emotions of love to be able to describe them.

6.Which of the following statements about pirates is best supported by thenarrator's characterization of them?
F.They have no rules of conduct that they must follow.
G. They succeed by means of confusing their enemies.
H. They are not accountable to anyone other than themselves.
J. They recognize the superior value of written language.

7.It can be most strongly inferred from the passage that the friend values whichof the following in vocal speech?
A.Meaningful expression
B. Proper mechanics
C. Rich vocabulary
D. Clever humor

8.According to the passage, the friend is worried he may:
F.say something embarrassing if he speaks.
G. grow exasperated from his inability to vocalize thoughts.
H. be damaging the narrator's chances of courtroom success.
J. not be clever enough to compose a symphony of thought.

9.As it is used in (line 68), the word puppet most nearly means:
A.entertainer.
B. conversationalist.
C. toy.
D. mouthpiece.

10.Based on the narrator's account, the friend's reaction to watching the narratorduring legal proceedings is:
F.appreciative and yearning.
G. confused and hopeless.
H. awestruck and overbearing.
J. bitter and resentful.

ACT小說可視化閱讀訓練(Visualizing Reading)

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